When working out, you need to know the basic exercise and training variables in order to get the best results. These variables include the order of exercises, the weight, the tempo, and the sticking point.
Fortunately, there are many resources to help you decide how to train. Read this article to learn more about these variables.
The order in which exercises are performed in a training session affects several key physiological responses, including muscle strength and volume.
Studies have shown that the order in which exercises are performed affects both acute and chronic responses. For instance, studies have examined acute responses to single-joint exercises and multijoint exercises, as well as neuromuscular activity.
Exercise order has several advantages and disadvantages, and athletes should consider them carefully. The order in which exercises are performed may affect the effectiveness, safety, and efficiency of their training program.
For instance, it’s best to perform exercises with a high degree of difficulty before attempting those with low-level difficulty. In addition, the order in which exercises are performed can influence adherence to the exercise regimen.
The exercise order in a training program is critical to the success of a training session.
Performing larger muscle groups first will provide a better training stimulus and stimulate greater physiological responses. These responses enhance the training of the subsequent muscles. In addition, multijoint exercises should be performed before single-joint exercises.
The order should correspond to the training goals of the individual. The order of exercises is also important to muscle development.
Different exercise orders can increase or decrease muscle strength and muscle thickness. For example, a study by Dias et al. looked at the impact of exercise order on the strength and muscle volume of untrained young men.
The researchers hypothesized that exercises performed at the end of a session might reduce the strength gains made during the last exercise.
In many aspects of training, the tempo of basic exercises is one of the most important variables. By changing the speed of a lift, you can increase or decrease the muscle stress and increase the muscle gains.
In power exercises, for instance, you can increase the tempo to create explosive movements. Conversely, if you want to build a long, lean muscle mass, you can slow the tempo to create the metabolic demand on a muscle for a longer period of time.
The tempo of basic exercise and training variables should be used in combination with the rep and set number to achieve specific training responses.
The tempo of a movement can also be influenced by the amount of load being used and how fatigue affects the movement. It is possible to control the tempo to a certain extent during concentric and eccentric movements, but only to a lesser extent during isometric movements.
A lower tempo can increase the volume of an exercise, but it can also increase post-exercise fatigue. Slow movement tempos also have a negative impact on REP and post-exercise muscle power.
The tempo of an exercise can significantly alter the REP and TUT values of a set.
It is essential to measure the tempo of basic exercise and training variables to ensure consistent, safe training. If you fail to do so, you may be training inefficiently and wasting valuable training time.
When you’re exercising, there are many variables to consider when determining your training stimulus.
These variables include weight, training frequency, training load, repetitions, and rest/recovery. It’s critical to know how to vary these variables to optimize your results.
Many people get stuck in a routine and stick to the same weight, but this will only increase hypertrophy and muscle endurance for a short period of time. Changing these variables to achieve your goals will keep your workouts challenging.
In weightlifting, there are a number of variables that affect exercise performance. These include biomechanical lever arms, insertion angles, leverages, and rates of progression.
In addition, there are unseen flaws that may affect performance, such as genetic hip structure or intraabdominal pressure.
If you are struggling with a specific movement or lift, you may have a sticking point. In this case, you should focus on strengthening the muscles in the area that you are weak.
For example, a weak muscle on the chest might be better developed with partial reps. Adding bands or chains to your deadlift may also help you to push past your sticking point.
Another factor that can affect the development of a sticking point is the amount of resistance or counterweight used. As the weight is increased, the resistance becomes greater.
When the resistance reaches zero, or becomes negative, the force is being exerted at the lowest point of the exercise’s ROM. This variable is particularly important for hypertrophy-oriented athletes.
Research based on standardized testing has proven that a training regime containing a sticking point can lead to a poor performance outcome. This is because of the repetitive nature of many exercises.
Those repetitive movements produce a performance bottleneck and can increase the likelihood of a breakdown of an exercise form.
Most sports are regulated by the volume of work performed over a period of time. This volume can be expressed in terms of distance and time. For instance, the total time spent running 12 kilometers is considered a volume of 60 minutes.
However, this volume rarely has any value for an individual athlete.
Training volume is another important variable, relating to the amount of weight lifted. This can also be expressed as the number of reps performed.
The general rep range for strength training is usually between one and five repetitions. The intensity of training must be high enough to produce the desired effect, while the frequency should be low enough to minimize the risk of overtraining.
Several studies have shown that a higher volume is required for significant gains in strength. However, it is important to remember that single-set training may be appropriate for individuals just starting out in strength training.
In addition, several studies have shown that the volume of training is related to the strength-building goals of the athlete.
Another basic exercise and training variable is the length of rest periods, which are vital in acute and chronic training programs.
Recovery time is a measurement of time between bouts of exercise. It describes the physiology and processes during the resting or recuperating state, and is different from the physiology of the exercising state.
For example, in aerobic exercise, the cardiovascular system recovers over a period of minutes or hours.
There are several factors that affect recovery time, including the duration of exercise and the initial volume. In general, a 24 hour rest period is optimum after a hard workout.
However, in more severe cases, recovery time may be two or three days or even a week. In professional sports, professionals usually integrate several weeks of rest into their training program after a competitive season.
One way to evaluate recovery time is to measure heart rate. This can be done with a chest strap, but increasingly, wrist-based sensors are available.
The heart rate can be displayed on a wristwatch or sent to a cell phone or tablet. This method of measurement is inexpensive, easy to implement, and relatively accurate.
The duration of rest between sets is critical in any workout. Heavy weights, for example, require three to five minutes rest between sets. During the rest period, athletes are able to lift more weight in one set.
This also improves the transferability of training.